The respiratory health of chickens in today’s closed poultry houses is affected by airborne pathogens. The main poultry diseases, such as Newcastle disease (ND), Salmonella and Avian Influenza are all transmitted by airborne (dust) particles. These pathogens are able to survive over limited periods of time and can travel distances of 500 m or more.
Knowing that you only need a few particles to infect an animal, airborne disease transmission is a serious threat for a flock within a poultry house. Also between poultry houses on a farm and more rarely between farms, such contamination can take place. It is also worth mentioning that airborne poultry pathogens have health implications for farm personnel.
It is clear that the first step limiting these risks is in making sure the empty poultry house is thoroughly disinfected (terminal disinfection) and populated with healthy chicks from a reliable and reputable hatchery.
The disinfectant Halamid® has proven its use in various disinfection protocols for empty houses (see our poultry brochure).
Aerial disinfection - Efficacy
Infection through a variety of vectors during the growing cycle is still possible. Aerial disinfection is one of few means to defend against this and safeguard animal health and farm profits. There are a number of reasons for doing it.
Halamid® is a unique powerful yet mild disinfectant, suitable also for use in the presence of birds. Dilute concentrations have a very good killing effect on notorious poultry pathogens.
Table 1: Effective concentrations, following European standardized norms
Aerial disinfection is possible in all poultry related applications where airborne transmission of pathogens is a risk (broiler, hatchery, layer farm and so on).
Protocol - Easy to use
Application in the presence of birds calls for a fine mist to be sprayed into the air rather than directly onto surfaces. The finest mist setting of a portable high pressure washer can be used. For higher performance, use cold-fogging equipment or hydrofans is used. The emphasis is on killing pathogens in the air rather than wetting the building.
If dust and/or endotoxins are a serious problem, a coarser spray producing larger droplets can be a solution. The higher wetting capacity makes dust fall to the ground.
Please follow local regulations and registered claims as they may differ per country
Further information can be obtained from local Halamid distributors or www.halamid.com.
There has been a resurgence of interest in thermal fogging in the poultry industry recently and of experimentation with different active products as the use of traditional chemicals such as formaldehyde has been called into question on grounds of hazard and toxicity. Thepoultrysite spoke to Toby Heppenstall – General Manager, and Arno Schut - Technical Manager of the well-known universal disinfectant brand Halamid®, to get an idea of the exciting progress that has been made in this area.
Q: What is Thermal fogging?
TH: Thermal fogging is the generation of ultra-fine droplets in a range of 1-50 μm using thermopneumatic energy. Liquid substances are vaporised at the end of fogging barrel and form ultra-fine aerosols by condensing on contact with cool ambient air, on being ejected, to create dense visible fog-clouds.
Q: What are the benefits of thermal fogging in the poultry industry?
TH: In biosecurity in general, active substances should be uniformly distributed, even in inaccessible places, without leaving undesirable residues: Thermal fogging is ideal for this. In addition, fogging can be an economical solution for treating large spaces like poultry barns with a minimum quantity of active substance, meaning less operational work, quicker completion, and lower environmental residues.
AS: On top of that we know that Halamid® has a mild toxicity and is environmentally sound, so the efficient fogging method definitely complements our product in this respect. We also find that poultry customers like to perform a thermal fog as the final step of a biosecurity protocol, once the equipment and floor insulation (straw or wood shavings) are all back in the barn. The dryness of the fogging method makes this possible and gives extra confidence in controlling any pathogens reintroduced after equipment and dry organic matter is put back.
Q: Can fogging replace wet disinfection?
AS: We don’t recommend this for a poultry barn. A high pressure spray of disinfectant is a very thorough method of controlling pathogens on all hard surfaces which is where the pathogens mainly reside and multiply. Having said this, we have some customers who successfully combine the benefits of a wet spray and a dry fog by producing an aerial mist of very fine water droplets. To be successful however this requires fairly high investment in suspended system of hydrofans with nozzles, integrated with pump and solution intake. More usual is a wet spray followed by a dry fog.
Q: Can any disinfectant be fogged?
TH: A number of types and brands of disinfectants can be fogged, but it is important to get the right dosage and solution, perhaps including a fog-enhancer. Leading disinfectant brands publish guidelines about fogging usage in their literature. We have carried out trials with Halamid®, so we can vouch that it works well according to the guidelines. Modern formulated disinfectants with good hazard and toxicology profiles certainly offer advantages compared to traditional products like formalin in that less dangerous fumes dissipate more quickly to safe levels and the barn is re-usable within hours instead of days. Faster turnaround between cycles is naturally attractive for poultry producers.
Q: How do you know that fogging Halamid® is effective?
AS: We have done comparative studies and found Halamid® to be particularly efficient and fast acting. The test protocol used infected dipslides suspended in the air inside the barn. The results demonstrate that modern branded disinfectant formulations can be used with confidence to replace carcinogenic and toxic formaldehyde fumigation at about one fifth of the formalin dosage. Halamid® achieves the same efficacy score as formalin even at this reduced usage rate.
Kg / 1000m3
Efficacy score (CFU count)
1 (0 - 40 CFU)
1 (0 - 40 CFU)
Q: Do you need to use a fog promoter / fog enhancer?
AS: As Toby said, it depends on the product. Our experience is that fogging agents give a more persistent, whiter mist that will float in the air longer, however we have not experienced better efficiency as a result. If desired we would recommend using a cost effective agent like monopropyleneglycol (MPG). From a practical point of view we also caution users that the white fog created with the use of fogging agents can look like smoke or fire from a distance, which may provoke reaction from neighbours.
Q: Would poultry farmers need to use a contractor or could they fog Halamid® by themselves?
AS: Some farmers prefer to use a contractor for the guarantee or because it fits with other services which is understandable. But using a fogging machine is really no more complicated than using a lawn mower. Manufacturers often provide basic training and support, and very quickly any operator can become proficient. Hence mechanically speaking, it is entirely possible for poultry farmers to adopt the technology for use by their own staff. As long as they are OK with the chemicals handling - on which point of course, there is a distinct advantage in fogging Halamid® which is much less dangerous for handling and exposure-risk than formaldehyde.
Q: How much disinfectant is needed to fog a typical poultry barn?
TH: Different manufacturers recommend different amounts, typically between 0.5 and 2kg of the neat commercial disinfectant product per 1,000m3 internal volume. Dosages should really be recommended per cubic volume rather than per square area, because you’re talking about a method which fills 3D space. In the trials mentioned above, where fogging was performed as the only disinfection step, we obtained great efficacy results using 2kg of product (actually 20L of a 10% solution) per 1000m3. For a terminal fog which follows a first stage wet disinfection step – which we recommend in practise - half that amount should be sufficient, and we intend to prove in future trials that still lower application rates of Halamid® are effective.
Q: What is the standard protocol and how long does it take?
AS: It’s quite simple to prepare and quick. Mix up to 10% of Halamid® in water. For example 1kg Halamid ® in 10L water in a bucket. Mix the solution for a minute with the mixing unit until all Halamid ® particles are dissolved and a clear solution results. Pour the contents of the bucket into the reservoir of the thermal fogging machine. If a whiter fog is desired up to 20% of the solution can be replaced with MPG, for example 1kg Halamid ® in 8L water and 2L MPG.
Although Halamid ® is a very safe chemical, remember to always wear suitable protective equipment (safety goggles, gloves and respirator). For the actual fogging, turn on the fogging machine and operate at a flow rate of 1L/min for at least 30 minutes. Ventilate after the elapsed exposure time for about 30 minutes until all the fog has visually disappeared.
Q: Is Halamid® really safer than formaldehyde?
AS: Yes. Of course, our guidelines also specify the need for the operator to wear protective equipment including a respirator during operation, but Halamid® is at worst labelled
Axcentive will be showcasing the Halamid® brand at VIV Asia from 11‐13 March 2015 in Bangkok Thailand. The Halamid® stand, number C005, is located in the welcome hall of the Aquatech pavilion and will focus mainly on the unique benefits of Halamid® in aquaculture.
Halamid® has been regarded as an essential and reliable product for aquaculture for many years. Its unique formula is designed to be powerful against diseases yet safe to fish, shrimp and aquatic environments. Halamid® is used in salt, brackish and fresh water environments and is the biocide of choice in many fish farms. Its biocidal efficacy towards many micro‐organisms in the presence of aquatic animals is widely admired – against EMS, White Spot and Costia in Asian shrimp and tropical species just as it is against gill conditions in North Atlantic salmonids.
Axcentive will be closely supported on the stand by approved Halamid® distributor Allvet Kaset Center. Mr. Pichai Pitaktrakulsiri, CEO of Kaset Center , will be attending the stand in person.
|Discussing the product he comments :|
“Our aquaculture industry is in deep problems due to the EMS disease. The shrimp production is again decreasing for the second consecutive year. In two years production has gone down 65 % ! We don’t expect Halamid® alone will counter this trend but its profile meets our needs in order to better protect our aquaculture industry from diseases”
Visitors to the stand who have questions about the usage of Halamid® in poultry will also be welcomed.
Axcentive will take the opportunity at VIV Asia this year to remind the market of the many benefits of Halamid® as well as taking the message to those in the industry who have still not yet discovered the brand!
The Research Cooperation between Balai Budidaya Laut Batam (“BBL Batam”) and Axcentive on the topic of improving hygiene and preventing diseases in tropical fish farming, starts bearing fruit.
Results are showing lower bacterial and viral levels and consequently higher survival and better growth. Initial tests in the larvae hatchery have shown that a small but regular dosage of Halamid® into the rearing water gives a significant better survival for grouper, barramundi and silver pompano.
Larvae survival, both in the wild and in farms, is typically low, much lower than it is in the subsequent nursery and grow‐out stages. The number of eggs required is therefore a multitude of the number of fish harvested. The availability of good quality eggs is often a bottleneck.
Upon using Halamid® the larvae survival rate has multiplied with a factor 5.
These tests also prove that Halamid® can be applied at a dosage that is effective in killing disease‐causing bacteria and viruses, without showing the toxicity symptoms that many other products show at their effective level.
“The results with Halamid® are promising and based on the significance of these initial tests we have already started using Halamid® in our operations as a standard larvae treatment showing good results” says Mr. Tinggal, project leader from the BBL.
Tests are ongoing also in the nursery and for egg washing in order to establish the full merits of a Halamid® protocol in tropical food fish production.
Further information can be obtained from local Halamid distributors or www.halamid.com.
|Sometimes, serendipitous meetings result in the most fruitful collaborations.|
Early in 2014, France‐based Axcentive got to know Dr Ibrahima Sall, a poultry vet with big ambitions, while he was working on a World‐Bank sponsored project with a breeder farm in Nigeria.
Dr Sall is also managing director of Avivet suarl, a veterinary practise headquartered in a suburb of Dakar, Senegal. Thanks to the CDEAO (a free trade agreement between several West African countries), Avivet’s distribution operation trades across both countries. Following the first tentative conversations about a partnership with Axcentive’s Halamid® brand of poultry disinfectant, Dr Sall quickly secured the necessary import licenses and approvals and has made an impressive start launching the Halamid brand to the region in 2014.
“Most experiences with registrations teach us to be rather pessimistic about launch timetables in new territories – so Avivet’s achievements in West Africa have been a refreshing surprise!”
Poultry farmers in Senegal and Nigeria prefer to buy disinfectant in smaller packaging units than is common in Europe due to smaller barn sizes. Halamid’s new 2kg bucket format developed for South East Asian markets, has translated well to Africa.
The Early Mortality Syndrome (EMS), also known as Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Syndrome is causing high mortalities in various Southeast Asian shrimp farming countries.
The cause of this disease has been linked to the omnipresent Vibrio parahaemolyticus. However this bacterium alone does not have such disastrous consequences. In fact the toxins produced by a virus that has infected the Vibrio (a phage) cause the mortality of the shrimp.
The phage alone is hard to eradicate, hence the proper approach is to reduce the number of Vibrio p. to a minimum.
Independent tests have shown that Vibrio parahaemolyticus is effectively killed by Halamid®. With the effective Halamid® dose being well under the toxic dose to shrimps, Halamid® offers the best possibility to keep Vibrio parahaemolyticus, under control.
Axcentive is continuing tests at the Thailand Kasetsart University following this approach.
Many biocides do not offer the possibility to control Vibrio in the presence of shrimp or fish due to their toxicity at the effective vibriocidal levels required. Halamid® has a low toxicity and is therefore different.
Halamid® is used on a global scale to protect fish and shrimp from pathogenic microorganisms. It destroys bacteria and virus particles in fish tanks, raceways, ponds and cages without harmful effects to the fish. In the USA the FDA has approved Halamid® Aqua for treatment of salmonids against bacterial gills diseases.
Further information can be obtained from local Halamid distributors or www.halamid.com.
|Although outbreaks have been traced to a variety of food types, Salmonella is most often associated with poultry products and is considered a veritable scourge of our industry.|
First identified as a human pathogen in the late 19th Century, this successful and aggressive family of bacteria continues to evolve and diversify, to the point where today there are more than 2,000 strains causing significant foodborne disease outbreaks the world over.
Although Halamid has not been tested against all 2,000, it has been proved effective against a large number of Salmonella species, including for example S. typhimurium (the 2nd most common serotype associated with foodborne illness and the third most frequently identified with chicken), S. oranienburg, and S. Dublin.
|An example of proven Halamid® performance against the above named Salmonella species is a reduction of more than 5 log10 of the bacterial count in just 2.5 min, a reassuringly rapid performance in a dilution at which Halamid is commonly used in poultry farms.|
Test data from our extensive data library on a wide spectrum of different bacteria, viruses and other pathogens is available from Axcentive on request along with test conditions used.
Further information on Halamid® can be obtained from www.axcentive.com, by emailing firstname.lastname@example.org or by calling our sales office on +33 442 694 090.
Axcentive was invited to send a keynote speaker to the IX International Scientific Conference «Poultry 2013» in Ukraine. Also we were requested to present The Universal Disinfectant at a Poultry Symposium in Poland sponsored by Lab-Vet, a leading veterinary practise and also distributor of Halamid® and other para-veterinary products.
The United States FDA concluded in relation to the use of Halamid® Pharma Grade in treating Bacterial Gill Diseases and external Columnaris disease, that our production line for Halamid® Pharma grade is complying with Good Manufacturing Practice based on their audit in 2011.
This is not only underlining the quality of our operations, but it is also a big leap towards final approval of our animal drug application (NADA) which will cover freshwater reared salmonids and finfish in the United States only. In many other countries a similar application is covered by biocidal regulations.
Axcentive® will be presenting its Halamid® – universal disinfectant at the well-known livestock show Eurotier. This year we partner up with our distributor Dr. Schumacher GmbH and JBS in one big stand. Several technical and commercial staff from Axcentive will be available to talk to farmers, veterinarians, distributors and other interested parties from all over Europe and beyond.
Toby Heppenstall, General Manager and responsible for sales in Central Europe explains why: ”Halamid® may be a universal disinfectant but we don’t have universal coverage yet! The growth in agricultural production in Central-Eastern Europe and Russia is a particular focus at the moment and I was even in Ukraine recently, visiting the largest poultry producers with our well-connected distributor there.
Eurotier is the best platform to meet people from these and many other regions. Giving support to our sales in Germany via Dr. Schumacher while meeting distributors and other actors from the CEE is the ideal combination”. Axcentive are actively working on several new registrations in Europe. Arno Schut, Technical Manager adds: “We have tested Halamid® against viruses not tested before with excellent results and we can now even also offer a Halamid® Pharma grade with US FDA GMP approval which is a great testimony to the quality of our product”.
See Axcentive® in Hall 13, on stand D15 at Eurotier between 13 – 16th November.
Axcentive® SARL and Zagro Vietnam are excited to announce they will cooperate on the future sales and market development of Axcentive’s disinfectant product Halamid® in Vietnam. Zagro is a Singapore mainboard public-listed company and very experienced in providing Agrisolutions to farmers in agriculture and animal husbandry mainly in Asia. It manufactures and distributes a wide range of nutrition and protection products for livestock, aquatic animals and crops. Zagro Vietnam was incorporated in 2010 as the result of an acquisition. Zagro has an aggressive growth strategy and was looking for a flagship disinfectant which Halamid® promises to be.
Zagro’s premises are located in Dong Nai province, close to Ho Chi Minh city and the Mekong delta where much of the aquaculture activity is concentrated. Apart from marketing Halamid® in the livestock segment, experts of both companies will start field trials in fish farms in order to fine tune disinfection protocols to local conditions and create local brand awareness in the country where aquaculture plays such a big role.
Axcentive is delighted to inform you that we have found Mr. Vernon Fretwell – Biosecurity Consultancy (Thai), available to team up with us starting early 2012.
Vernon works full time for Axcentive, from his base in Bangkok, Thailand. He will support and drive – together with Axcentive’s executive director Paul van Lenthe and other members of the Axcentive Team – the further development of the market for the Universal Disinfectant Halamid® in the fast growing Southeast Asian aquaculture markets. Vernon is member of the Poultry Industry Register UK and has a 25 year long experience related to biosecurity in both livestock and aquaculture markets in Asia. He has the English nationality and spends most of his time in SE Asia. From his base in Bangkok he will cover amongst others Vietnam, Indonesia, Malaysia, The Philippines and of course Thailand.
Axcentive have signed an agreement with PT Farmadika Sejahtera Indonesia, in short FSI, for the exclusive distribution of Halamid® – the universal disinfectant to the Indonesian livestock markets. Marketing Director Freddie Hadiwibowo is delighted as he has been looking for ways to distribute Halamid® for some time. Axcentive is glad to team up with such knowledgeable and reputable team. Freddie and FSI are already familiar with Indonesian biosecurity markets and with the strong technical back up from Axcentive, both companies are confident that sales of Halamid® in Indonesian livestock markets will soon expand.
Halamid® is now registered in Tunisia for surfaces and equipment disinfection in the hospital, veterinary and food industry markets. This registration will allow Axcentive SARL together with the company Interlab Production, Halamid® distributor in Tunisia, to be present in the market and offer Halamid® to customers looking for a reliable disinfectant.
We are proud to announce a new partnership between Axcentive and Vetline International, a well established distributor for the poultry industry who is used to work and represent various international principals. Vetline started promoting Halamid™ at the veterinary and Poultry show in Lahore from 24-25th of September. We are looking forward to establishing a good partnership & co-operation between the two companies.
Axcentive is very happy to announce a new HALAMID partnership in Eastern Europe. A distribution agreement has been signed with the company BOSPLUS KFT, based in Szolnok, HUNGARY. First step for BOSPLUS will be to assist in the registration of our HALAMID for the use in intensive farming and aquaculture and possibly the other relevant applications which AXCENTIVE is supporting for the BPD.
Axcentive will be present at the Eurotier exhibition in Hannover (November 16-19) to support Halamid® applications in intensive farming and aquaculture. Visit us in hall 15, stand D08.
In a recent study regarding efficacy of various disinfectants against the bacteria Haemophilus parasuis responsible for the Glasser disease, Halamid® proved to be very effective both in suspension and carrier tests. This further demonstrate the interest of Halamid® as a general disinfectant in the pig farms.
Reference : Rodriguez Ferri et al., Comparative efficacy of several disinfectants in suspension and carrier tests against Haemophilus parasuis serovars 1 and 5, Res Vet Sci. 2010 Jun ;88(3):385-9.
After review of the product efficacy, SVA, the Swedish National Veterinary Institute, included Halamid® in its list of disinfectants for uses against Salmonella, Foot and Mouth disease, Swine vesicular disease, avian influenza and Newcastle disease in case of disease outbreaks. For additional information, contact us.
Halamid® is now registered in Latvia for use in private area and public health area, in veterinary hygiene, in the food and feed area and for drinking water disinfection.
The influenza A virus is again making the headlines : after the H5N1 virus strain responsible for the last avian influenza epidemic, the H1N1 strain is now responsible for the deadly outbreak currently observed.
Halamid® has been tested against the influenza A virus and proved to be very effective : a 0.1% Halamid® solution was enough to destroy the virus according to the norm EN 14675.
Halamid® was tested against the H7N1 strain, not against the H1N1 strain. However the experts (including the US Environmental Protection Agency) are convinced that a disinfectant effective against one specific strain of influenza A virus is also effective against the other strains of this virus (differences in strain and pathogenicity are not related to disinfectant activity). Thus Halamid® is also effective against the H1N1 strain.
Halamid® is effective against the influenza A virus. The recommended standard concentration of use will ensure killing of the virus.
Refer to the farm and veterinary hygiene section for more instructions of use.
The authorities of Brazil have renewed the Halamid® registration for intensive farming and veterinary applications. The company Fatec, our distributor in Brazil for this market has been selling Halamid® successfully for many years. They will use this opportunity to launch a promotional campaign to the pig and poultry farmers.
Fatec is a supplier of animal nutrition products and veterinary medicines and was established already in 1966. Halamid® is a logical part of their product assortment as it is a high performance general purpose disinfectant that safely secures hygiene in all critical steps of livestock farming.
The screening of the renewal file by the Brazilian authorities has been particularly strict and following mostly veterinary medicinal guidelines. The acceptance of the file underlines the high quality standards Axcentive applies to its production of Halamid®.
Axcentive will be present at the 1st International Congress on Aquatic Animal Health Management and Diseases, in Tehran (Iran), on January 27-28, 2009 to present the use of Halamid® in aquaculture. Please do not hesitate to visit us there at the stand of our distributor.
Customers for Halamid® are affected by two major European Regulations. One is the EU Biocidal Product Directive which rules the authorization of Biocides on the European Market. For most disinfectant applications where a biocidal activity is claimed this is the most relevant regulation. Extensive dossiers for all supported active ingredients are currently being reviewed by the EU Rapporteur Member States and by 2010 more and more active substances will be listed on Annex 1 and by that officially approved for use in commercial disinfectant products. Other active substances for which no dossier has been prepared or the dossier is not accepted, will be banned for use in biocide products in the EU market. .These commercial products will then still have to be registered in the relevant Member States but this is expected to be a faster and simpler procedure than the review of the active substances. As long as these final products are not being registered the local regulations (if any) remain in force.
REACH The other relevant regulation is REACH. BPD reviewed biocides will automatically be exempted from (pre)registration BUT ONLY TO THE EXTENT THEY ARE COVERED BY BIOCIDE APPLICATIONS. This means that customers using Halamid for applications that are different from biocides (=explicitly claimed biocidal or inherently when it is clear that the actual use is for controlling micro organisms) will fall under REACH and not the BPD regulation. Axcentive has pre-registered Halamid® for those usages that we consider non-biocide and we will in the near future contact our customers in order to collect the required down stream use details required for the REACH dossier.
Axcentive has been present at the EUROTIER exhibition in Hannover (Germany) for intensive farming, with also reference to the aquaculture application. Halamid® applications were presented and many new contacts were made with people from different part of the world.
You can find Halamid on the Eurotier website under the Product focus section at the following address :
Ultra Bio Corporation has been appointed as distributor for Halamid® in the Animal Hygiene sector in the Philippines. Ultra Bio Corporation is a distributor for Animal Health and Nutritional Products represented by Mr. Cesar Castanares, as Managing Director and President
“Ultra Bio do not have a biosecurity product in its product range. More and more of our customers started to ask for this, and we are extremely happy that we could work with Axcentive on their Universal Disinfectant Halamid®.
Halamid® has been on the market in the Philippines for decades and its brand name is very well known. Based on this awareness and in combination with our dedication we expect to satisfy a lot of customers that Halamid® is available through a regular channel again.”
The company RESCO has been appointed exclusive distributor for Halamid® in the Belgian animal hygiene sector. Resco is managed by Mr. Regi Teucq who is familiar with Halamid® and Axcentive® for many years. Axcentive® and Resco are therefore confident that a closer cooperation will be beneficial for both companies.
Regi Teucq : Halamid® has become particularly attractive for use in Belgian farms, now that the approved concentration* for use in farming has been reduced to 0.5 % only, based on the proven excellent efficacy of Halamid®.
Resco are a company focusing on individual strong brands. They are also distributor for Stalosan stable hygiene powder and nutritional supplements.
* Approved by the Belgian authorities
Axcentive will be present at the Eurotier fair (November 11-14) in Hannover, Germany to support Halamid®. Visit us in hall 15, stand E26.
We are proud to present the new Halamid® website, introducing the main product data and applications.
Halamid® is now approved in Cyprus as a general disinfectant for intensive farming and veterinary applications.